Bibliography for Leading Change

This page includes articles about quality improvement approaches and strategies. A bibliography of resources organized by Blueprint focal area is also available.

“Online Source” indicates that the resource is available online without charge. A cost-free registration may be required for access to some items with this designation.

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Highly Recommended Place to Start

Fan E, Laupacis A, Pronovost PF et al. How to use an article about quality improvement. JAMA 2010’304(20):2279-87.
(Online Resource, PDF)

Leading Change: Clinical Settings

Bartick M, Stuebe A, Shealy KR et al. Closing the quality gap: promoting evidence-based breastfeeding care in the hospital. Pediatrics 2009;124(4):e793-802.
(Online Source)

Bingham D. Helping hospitals change: part 1: what childbirth educators can do. J Perinat Educ 2005;14(3):39-44.
(Online Source)

Bingham D. Helping hospitals change: part 2: childbirth education techniques to empower women. J Perinat Educ 2005;14(3):51-5.
(Online Source)

Bingham D, Main EK. Effective implementation strategies and tactics for leading change on maternity units. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2010;24(1):32-42.

Evidence-led obstetric care: report of a WHO meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, 28-30 January 2004. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2005.
(Online Source, PDF)

Fan E, Laupacis A, Proovost PJ et al. How to use an article about quality improvement. JAMA 2010;304(20):2279-87.
(Online Resource, PDF)

Gennaro S, Hodnett E, Kearney M. Making evidence-based practice a reality in your institution. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2001;26(5):236-44.

Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Improvement methods.
(Online Source)

Lukas CV, Holmes SK, Cohen AB et al. Transformational change in health care systems: an organizational model. Health Care Manage Rev 2007;32(4):309-20.

Main EK, Bingham D. Quality improvement in maternity care: promising approaches from the medical and public health perspectives. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2008;20(6):574-80.

Sainfort F, Karsh BT, Booske BC. Applying quality improvement principles to achieve healthy work organizations. Jt Comm J Qual Improv 2001;27(9):469-83.

Weber V, Joshi MS. Effecting and leading change in health care organizations. Jt Comm J Qual Improv 2000;26(7):388-99.

Leading Change: Policy Makers

Contandriopoulos D, Lemire M, Denis JL, Tremblay E. Knowledge exchange processes in organizations and policy arenas: a narrative systematic review of the literature. Milbank Q. 2010;88(4):444-483.

Innvaer S, Vist G, Trommald M, Oxman A. Health policy-makers’ perceptions of their use of evidence: a systematic review. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2002;7(4):239-44.

Lavis JN, Davies HT, Gruen RL et al. Working within and beyond the Cochrane Collaboration to make systematic reviews more useful to healthcare managers and policy makers. Healthc Policy 2006;1(2):21-33.

Muir Gray JA. Evidence-based healthcare and public health: how to make decisions about health policy and public health, 3rd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2008.

Clinical Practice Quality Improvement: Knowledge in Systematic Reviews

Akbari A, Mayhew A, Al-Alawi MA, Grimshaw J, Winkens R, Glidewell E, Pritchard C, Thomas R, Fraser C. Interventions to improve outpatient referrals from primary care to secondary care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008, Issue 4.
(Online Source, summary)

Baker R, Camosso-Stefinovic J, Gillies C, Shaw EJ, Cheater F, Flottorp S, Robertson N. Tailored interventions to overcome identified barriers to change: effects on professional practice and health care concerns. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010, Issue 3.
(Online Source, summary)

Chaillet N, Dubé E, Dugas M, Audibert F, Tourigny C, Fraser WD, Dumont A. Evidence-based strategies for implementing guidelines in obstetrics: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108(5):1234-45.

Chaillet N, Dumont A. Evidence-based strategies for reducing cesarean section rates: a meta-analysis. Birth. 2007;34(1):53-64.

Dijkstra R, Wensing M, Thomas R, Akkermans R, Braspenning J, Grimshaw J, Grol R. The relationship between organizational characteristics and the effects of clinical guidelines on medical performance in hospitals, a meta-analysis. BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6(53).
(Online Source)

Flodgren G, Parmelli E, Doumit G, Gattellari M, O’Brien MA, Grimshaw J, Eccles MP. Local opinion leaders: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007, Issue 1.
(Online Source, summary)

Foxcroft DR, Cole N. Organisational infrastructures to promote evidence based nursing practice. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003, Issue 4.
(Online Source, summary)

Greenhalgh T, Robert G, MacFarlane F, Bate P, Kyriakidou O. Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: systematic review and recommendations. Milbank Q. 2004;82(4):581-629.
(Online Source)

Griffin SJ, Kinmonth A-L, Veltman MWM, Gillard S, Grant J, Stewart M. Effect on health-related outcomes of interventions to alter the interaction between patients and practitioners: a systematic review of trials. Ann Fam Med. 2004;2(6):595-608.
(Online Source)

Hearnshaw H, Harker R, Cheater F, Baker R, Grimshaw G. A study of the methods used to select review criteria for clinical audit. Health Technol Assess. 2002;6(1):1-78.
(Online Source)

Ioannidis JP, Lau J. Evidence on interventions to reduce medical errors: an overview and recommendations for further research. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(5):325-34.
(Online Source)

Jamtvedt G, Young JM, Kristoffersen DT, Thompson O’Brien MA, Oxman AD. Audit and feedback: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2006, Issue 2.
(Online Source, summary)

Kawamoto K, Houlihan CA, Balas EA, Lobach DF. Improving clinical practice using clinical decision support systems: a systematic review of trials to identify features critical to success. BMJ. 2005;330(7494):765.
(Online Source)

Lewin SA, Skea ZC, Entwistle V, Zwarenstein M, Dick J. Interventions for providers to promote a patient-centered approach in clinical consultations. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001, Issue 4.
(Online Source, summary)

Li LC, Grimshaw JM, Nielsen C, Judd M, Coyte PC, Graham ID. Use of communities of practice in business and health care sectors: a systematic review. Implement Sci. 2009;4(27).
(Online Source)

McColl E, Jacoby A, Thomas L, Soutter J, Bamford C, Steen N, Thomas R, Harvey E, Garratt A, Bond J. Design and use of questionnaires: a review of best practice applicable to surveys of health service staff and patients. Health Technol Assess. 2001;5(31):1-256.
(Online Source)

Pattinson RC, Say L, Makin JD, Bastos MH. Critical incident audit and feedback to improve perinatal and maternal mortality and morbidity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005, Issue 4
(Online Source, summary)

Paxton A, Maine D, Freedman L, Fry D, Lobis S. The evidence for emergency obstetric care. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2005;88(2):181-93.

Royal S, Smeaton L, Avery AJ, Hurwitz B, Sheikh A. Interventions in primary care to reduce medication related adverse events and hospital admissions: systematic review and meta-analysis. Qual Saf Health Care. 2006;15(1):23-31.
(Online Source)

Shepperd S, Parkes J, McClaran J, Phillips C. Discharge planning from hospital to home. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004, Issue 1.
(Online Source, summary)

van Lonkhuijzen L, Dijkman A, van Roosmalen J, Zeeman G, Scherpbier A. A systematic review of the effectiveness of training in emergency obstetric care in low-resource environments. BJOG. 2010;117(7):777-787.

Clinical Practice Quality Improvement: Overviews of Best Evidence

Evidence overviews

Adopting best evidence into practice [special supplement]. Med J Aus. 2004;180(6 supplement):S41-S72.
(Online Source)

Davis D. Getting a grip of guidelines: the science and art of implementing guidelines. Presentation at National Institute for Clinical Studies, Australia, 2004.
(Online Source, audio and slides)

Davis D, Evans M, Jadad A, Perrier L, Rath D, Ryan D, Sibbald G, Straus S, Rappolt S, Wowk M, Zwarenstein M. The case for knowledge translation: shortening the journey from evidence to effect. BMJ. 2003;327(7405):33-5.
(Online Source)

Dopson S, FitzGerald L, Ferlie E, Gabbay J, Locock L. No magic targets! Changing clinical practice to become more evidence based. Health Care Manage Rev. 2002;27(3):35-47.

Flynn K. Brief overview: systematic reviews for patient-centered care. Boston: Veterans Health Administration, Office of Patient Care Services, Technology Assessment Program, August 2010.
(Online Source, PDF)

Flynn K. Brief overview: systematic reviews of strategies for changing clinician behavior to improve patient outcomes. Boston: Veterans Health Administration, Office of Patient Care Services, Technology Assessment Program, December 2010.
(Online Source, PDF)

Grilli R, Harvey E, Oxman A, O’Brien MA. Changing provider behavior: an overview of systematic reviews of interventions. Med Care. 39(8 supplement 2)112-45.

Grimshaw J, Eccles M, Tetroe J. Implementing clinical guidelines: current evidence and future implications. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2004;24(supplement 1):S31-7.

Grimshaw JM, Eccles MP, Walker AE, Thomas RE. Changing physicians’ behavior: what works and thoughts on getting more things to work. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2002;22(4):237-43.

Grimshaw JM, Shirran L, Thomas R, Mowatt G, Fraser C, Bero L, Grilli R, Harvey E, Oxman A, O’Brien MA. Changing provider behavior: an overview of systematic reviews of interventions. Med Care. 2001;39(8 supplement 2):II2-II45.

Grol R, Grimshaw J. From best evidence to best practice: effective implementation of change in patients’ care. Lancet. 2003;362(9391):1225-30.

Grol R, Wensing M, Eccles M. Improving patient care: the implementation of change in clinical practice. Oxford: Elsevier, 2004.

Shojania KG, Grimshaw JM. Evidence-based quality improvement: the state of the science. Health Aff. 2005;24(1):138-50.
(Online Source)

Strand M, Phelan KJ, Donovan EF. Promoting the uptake and use of evidence: an overview of the problem. Clin Perinatol. 2003;30(2):389-402.

University of York, NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Getting evidence into practice. Effective Health Care. 1999;5(1):1-16.
(Online Source)

Wensing M, Wollersheim H, Grol R. Organizational interventions to implement improvements in patient care: a structured review of reviews. Implement Sci. 2006;1(2).
(Online Source)

Wilson PM, Petticrew M, Calnan MW, Nazareth I. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks. Implement Sci. 2010;5:91.
(Online Source)

Multi-site and multi-program evaluations

Bradley EH, Holmboe ES, Mattera JA, Roumanis SA, Radford MJ, Krumholz HM. Data feedback efforts in quality improvement: lessons learned from US hospitals. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004;13(1):26-31.
(Online Source)

Bradley EH, Holmboe ES, Mattera JA, Roumanis SA, Radford MJ, Krumholz HM. The roles of senior management in quality improvement efforts: what are the key components? J Healthc Manag. 2003;48(1):15-28.

Bradley EH, Webster TR, Baker D, Schlesinger M, Inouye SK, Barth MC, Lapane KL, Lipson D, Stone R, Koren MJ. Translating research into practice: speeding the adoption of innovative health care programs. Issue Brief. July 2004;1-12.
(Online Source, PDF)

Øvretveit J, Bate P, Cleary P, Cretin S, Gustafson D, McInnes K, McLeod H, Molfenter T, Plsek P, Robert G, Shortell S, Wilson T. Quality collaboratives: lessons from research. Qual Saf Health Care. 2002;11(4):345-51.
(Online Source)

Solberg LI, Brekke ML, Fazio CJ, Fowles J, Jacobsen DN, Kottke TE, Mosser G, O’Connor PJ, Ohnsorg KA, Rolnick SJ. Lessons from experienced guideline implementers: attend to many factors and use multiple strategies. Jt Comm J Qual Improv. 2000;26(4):171-88.

Wilson T, Berwick DM, Cleary PD. What do collaborative improvement projects do? Experience from seven countries. Jt Comm J Qual Saf. 2003;29(2):85-93.
(Online Source, PDF)

Theory-based frameworks for evidence uptake

Eccles M, Grimshaw J, Walker A, Johnston M, Pitts N. Changing the behavior of healthcare professionals: the use of theory in promoting uptake of research findings. J Clin Epidemiol. 2005;58(2):107-12.

Wensing M, Bosch M, Grol R. Developing and selecting interventions for translating knowledge into action. CMAJ. 2010;182(2):e85-e88.
(Online Source, PDF)

Websites and Databases

Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group

Cochrane EPOC: Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group

Health Systems Evidence, McMaster University

National Institute of Clinical Studies (NICS)

Maternal and Newborn Care Quality Improvement Initiatives

Aaserud M, Lewin S, Innvaer S, Paulsen EJ, Dahlgren AT, Trommald M, Duley L, Zwarenstein M, Oxman AD. Translating research into policy and practice in developing countries: a case study of magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia. BMC Health Serv Res. 2005;5:68.
(Online Source)

Awonuga AO, Dwarakanath LS, Johanson R, Hyde C, Taylor R, Khan KS. Critical appraisal workshops to promote evidence-based healthcare. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2000;20(1):10-4.

Baker GR, King K, MacDonald JL, Horbar JD. Using organizational assessment surveys for improvement in neonatal intensive care. Pediatrics. 2003;111(4):e19.
(Online Source)

Beasley JW, Dresang LT, Winslow DB, Damos JR. The Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) program: fourteen years of progress. Prehospital Disaster Med. 2005;20(4):271-5.
(Online Source)

Berry SA, Laam LA, Wary AA, et al. ProvenCare perinatal: A model for delivering evidence/ guideline-based care for perinatal populations. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2011;37(5):229-239.

Caesarean Section Working Group, Ontario Women’s Health Council. Attaining and maintaining best practices in the use of caesarean section: an analysis of four Ontario hospitals. Toronto: Ontario Women’s Health Council, June 2000. [Available in print only]

Caesarean Section Working Group, Ontario Women’s Health Council. Caesarean section best practices project: Impact and analysis. Toronto: Ontario Women’s Health Council, November 2002.
(Online Source, PDF)

Chapin J, Root W, for the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Improving obstetrician-gynecologist implementation of smoking cessation guidelines for pregnant women: an interim report of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6(supplement 2):S253-7.
(Online Source)

Clark SL, Belfort MA, Byum SL, Meyers JA, Perlin JB. Improved outcomes, fewer cesearean deliveries, and reduced litigation: results of a new paradigm in patient safety. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199(2): 105e1-7.

Clark S.L, Belfort MA, Dildy GA, Meyers JA. Reducing obstetric litigation through alterations in practice patterns. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112(6):1279–1283.

Elliott SA, Ashton C, Gerrard J, Cox JL. Is trainer training an effective method for disseminating evidence-based practice for postnatal depression? J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2003;21(3):219-28.

Flamm BL, Berwick DM, Kabcenell A. Reducing cesarean section rates safely: lessons from a “breakthrough series” collaborative. Birth. 1998;25(2):117-24.

Flamm B, Kabcenell A, Berwick DM, Roessner J. Reducing cesarean section rates while maintaining maternal and infant outcomes. Boston: Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 1997.

Graham ID, Logan J, Davies B, Nimrod C. Changing the use of electronic fetal monitoring and labor support: a case study of barriers and facilitators. Birth. 2004;31(4):293-301.

Grimes DA. Introducing evidence-based medicine into a department of obstetrics and gynecology. Obstet Gynecol. 1995;86(3):451-7.

Gülmezoglu AM, Villar J, Grimshaw J, Piaggio G, Lumbiganon P, Langer A. Cluster randomized trial of an active, multifaceted information dissemination intervention based on the WHO Reproductive Health Library to change obstetric practices: methods and design issues [ISRCTJNI4055385]. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2004;4:2.
(Online Source)

Gunn J, Southern D, Chondros P, Thomson P, Robertson K. Guidelines for assessing postnatal problems: introducing evidence-based guidelines in Australian general practice. Fam Pract. 2003;20(4):382-9.
(Online Source)

Hodnett ED, Kaufman K, O’Brien-Pallas L, Chipman M, Watson-MacDowell J, Hunsburger W. A strategy to promote research-based nursing care: effects on childbirth outcomes. Res Nurs Health. 1996;19(1):13-20.

Horbar JD. The Vermont-Oxford Neonatal Network: integrating research and clinical practice to improve the quality of medical care.  Sem Perinatol. 1995;19:124-31.

Horbar JD, for the Vermont Oxford Network. Increasing use of antenatal corticosteroid therapy between 1990 and 1993 in the Vermont Oxford Network. J Perinatol. 1997;17(4):309-13.

Horbar JD. The Vermont Oxford Network: evidence-based quality improvement for neonatology. Pediatrics. 1999;103(1 Supplement E):350-9.

Horbar JD, Carpenter JH, Buzas J, Soll RF, Suresh G, Bracken MB, Leviton LC, Plsek PE, Sinclair JC. Collaborative quality improvement to promote evidence based surfactant for preterm infants: a cluster randomized trial. BMJ. 2004;329(7473):1004.
(Online Source)

Horbar JD, Plsek PE, Schriefer JA, Leahy K, eds. Evidence-based quality improvement in neonatal and perinatal medicine: The NIC/Q 2002 experience [special supplement]. Pediatrics. 2006; 118(2 supplement).
(Online Source)

Horbar JD, Plsek PE, Leahy K, Schriefer, eds. Evidence-based quality improvement in neonatal and perinatal medicine: the NIC/Q 2000 experience [special supplement]. Pediatrics. 2003;111(4):e395-e547.
(Online Source)

Horbar JD, Rogowski J, Plsek PE, Delmore P, Edwards WH, Hicker J, Kantak AD, Lewallen P, Lewis W, Lewit E, McCarroll CJ, Mujsce D, Payne NR, Shiono P, Soll RF, Leahy K, Carpenter JH, for the NIC/Q Project Investigators of the Vermont Oxford Network. Collaborative quality improvement for neonatal intensive care. Pediatrics. 2001;107(1):14-22.

Horbar JD, Soll RF, Edwards WH. The Vermont Oxford Network: a community of practice. Clin Perinatol. 2010;37(1):29-47.
(Online Source)

Inglis SR, Feier N, Chetiyaar JB, Naylor MH, Sumersilly M, Cerverllione KL. Effects of shoulder dystocia training on the incidence of brachial plexus injury. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(4):322.e1-6.
(Online Source)

Jackson JK, Vellucci J, Johnson P, Kilbride HW. Evidence-based approach to change in clinical practice: introduction of expanded nasal continuous positive airway pressure use in an intensive care nursery. Pediatrics. 2003;111(4 part 2):e542-7.
(Online Source)

Khan KS, Dwarakanath LS, Pakkal M, Brace V, Awonuga A. A postgraduate journal club as a means of promoting evidence-based obstetrics and gynaecology. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2000;20(1):10-4.

Kirkham M, Stapleton H, eds. Informed choice in maternity care: an evaluation of evidence based leaflets. CRD Report. 2001;20.

Knox GE, Simpson KR. Perinatal high reliability. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2004(5):373-7.
(Online Source, PDF)

Leviton LC, Goldenberg RL, Baker CS, Schwartz RM, Freda MC, Fish LJ, Cliver SP, Rouse DJ, Chazotte C, Merkatz IR, Raczynski JM. Methods to encourage the use of antenatal corticosteroid therapy for fetal maturation: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1999;281(1):46-52.
(Online Source)

Leviton LC, Horbar JD. Cluster randomized trials for the evaluation of strategies designed to promote evidence-based practice in perinatal and neonatal medicine. Ann Am Acad Polit Social Sci. 2005;599(1):94-114.

Leviton LC, Orleans C. Promoting the uptake of evidence in clinical practice: a prescription for action. Clin Perinatol. 2003;30(2):403-17.

Lomas J. Making clinical policy explicit: legislative policy making and lessons for developing practice guidelines. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 1993;9(1):11-25.

Lomas J. Retailing research: increasing the role of evidence in clinical services for childbirth. Milbank Q. 1993;71(3):439-75.

Lomas J, Anderson GM, Domnick-Pierre K, Vayda E, Enkin MW, Hannah WJ.  Do practice guidelines guide practice? The effect of a consensus statement on the practice of physicians. N Engl J Med. 1989;321(19):1306-11.

Lomas J, Anderson G, Enkin M, Vayda E, Roberts R, MacKinnon B. The role of evidence in the consensus process: results from a Canadian consensus exercise. JAMA. 1988; 259(20):3001-5.

Lomas J, Enkin M, Anderson GM, Hannah WJ, Vayda E, Singer J. Opinion leaders vs audit and feedback to implement practice guidelines: delivery after previous cesarean section. JAMA. 1991;265(17):2202-7.

MacArthur C, Winter HR, Bick DE, Lilford RJ, Lancashire RJ, Knowles H, Braunholtz DA, Henderson C, Belfield C, Gee H. Redesigning postnatal care: a randomised controlled trial of protocol-based midwifery-led care focused on individual women’s physical and psychological health needs. Health Technol Assess. 2003;7(37):1-98.
(Online Source)

Main EK. Reducing cesarean birth rates with data-driven quality improvement activities. Pediatrics. 1999;103(1 supplement):374-83.
(Online Source)

Main EK, Bingham D. Quality improvement in maternity care: promising approaches from the medical and public health perspectives. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2008;20(6):574-80.

Main EK, Bloomfield L, Hunt  G, for the Sutter Health First Pregnancy and Delivery Clinical Initiative Committee. Development of a large-scale obstetric quality-improvement program that focused on the nulliparous patient at term. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190(6):1747-58.

Manuck TA, Henry E, Gibson J, Varner MW, Porter TF, Jackson GM, Esplin MS. Pregnancy outcomes in a recurrent preterm birth prevention clinic. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(4):322.e1-6.
(Online Source)

Mawson AR. Reducing cesarean delivery rates in managed care organizations. Am J Manag Care. 2002;8(8):730-40.
(Online Source)

Mazza F, Kitchens J, Atkin M, et al. The road to zero preventable birth injuries. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2008;34(4):201-5.

Mazza F, Kitchens J, Kerr S, Markovich A, Best M, Sparkman LP. Eliminating birth trauma at Ascension Health. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2007;33(1):15-24.

Mercier CE, Barry SE, Paul K, Delaney TV, Horbar JD, Wasserman RC, Berry P, Shaw JS. Improving newborn prevenative services at the birth hospitalization: a collaborative, hospital-based quality-improvement project. Pediatrics. 2007;120(3):481-8.
(Online Source)

Nzama B, Hofmeyr J, Smith H, Tarner P, Brown H, Xu Q, Lugina H, for the Better Births Initiative Collaborators. Improving the experience of birth in poor communities. BJOG. 2005;112(9):1165-7.
(Online Source)

O’Cathain A, Walters SJ, Nicholl JP, Thomas KJ, Kirkham M. Use of evidence based leaflets to promote informed choice in maternity care: randomised controlled trial in everyday practice.  BMJ. 2002;324(7354):643.
(Online Source)

Oliver S, Rajan L, Turner H, Oakley A. A pilot study of ‘Informed Choice’ leaflets on positions in labour and routine ultrasound. CRD Report. 1996;7.
(Online Source)

Oliver S, Rajan L, Turner H, Oakley A, Entwistle V, Watt I, Sheldon TA, Rosser J. Informed choice for users of health services: views on ultrasonography leaflets of women in early pregnancy, midwives, and ultrasonographers. BMJ. 1996;313(7067):1251-3.
(Online Source)

O’Mara L. Evidence based patient information leaflets in maternity care had limited visibility and did not promote informed choice of childbearing women.  Evid Based Nurs. 2003;6(1):27.

Orleans T, Melvin C, Marx J, Maibach E, Vose KK, for the National Partnership to Help Pregnant Smokers Quit. National action plan to reduce smoking during pregnancy: the National Partnership to Help Pregnant Smokers Quit. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6(supplement 2):S269-77.

Oshiro BT, Henry E, Wilson J, Branch DW, Varner MW. Decreasing elective deliveries before 39 weeks of gestation in an integrated health care system. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(4):804-11.

Payne NR, Finkelstein MJ, Liu M, Kaempf JW, Sharek PJ, Olsen S. NICU practices and outcomes associated with 9 years of quality improvement collaborative. Pediatrics. 2010;125(3):437-446.

Pierre KD, Vayda E, Lomas J, Enkin MW, Hannah WJ, Anderson GM. Obstetrical attitudes and practices before and after the Canadian Consensus Conference Statement on Cesarean Birth. Soc Sci Med. 1991;32(11):1283-9.

Rogowski JA, Horbar JD, Plsek PE, Baker LS, Deterding J, Edwards WH, Hocker J, Hantak AD, Lewallen P, Lesis W, Lewit E, McCarroll CJ, Mujsce D, Payne NR, Shiono P, Soll RF, Leahy K. Economic implications of neonatal intensive care unit collaborative quality improvement. Pediatrics. 2001;107(1):23-9.

Sharek PJ, Horbar JD, Mason W, et al. Adverse events in the neonatal intensive care unit: development, testing, and findings of an NICU-focused trigger tool to identify harm in North American NICUs. Pediatrics. 2006;118(4):1332-40.
(Online Source)

Simpson KR, Kortz CC, Knox GE. A comprehensive perinatal patient safety program to reduce preventable adverse outcomes and costs of liability claims. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2009;35(11):565-74.
(Online Source, PDF)

Sisk JE, Greer AL, Wojtowycz M, Pincus LB, Aubry RH. Implementing evidence-based practice: evaluation of an opinion leader strategy to improve breast-feeding rates. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190(2):413-21.

Smith H, Brown H, Hofmeyr GJ, Garner P. Evidence-based obstetric care in South Africa: influencing practice through the ‘Better Birth Initiative’. S Afr Med J. 2004;94(2):117-20.
(Online Source)

Smith H, Lugina H, Mlay R. Use of educational workshop to promote mobility during childbirth. East Afr Med J. 2004;81(11):603-8.

Srinivasa VG, Leaf AA. International benchmarking in neonatal intensive care: the Vermont-Oxford Network. Clin Governance Bull. 2003;3(5):8-10.

Stapleton H, Kirkham M, Thomas G. Qualitative study of evidence based leaflets in maternity care.  BMJ. 2002;324(7338):639.
(Online Source)

Straub S. Implementing best practice safety initiatives to diminish patient harm in a hospital-based family birth center. Newborn & Infant Nursing Reviews. 2010;10(3):151-156.

Suresh G, Horbar JD, Plsek P, Gray J, Edwards WH, Shiono PH, Ursprung R, Nickerson J, Lucey JF, Goldmann D. Voluntary anonymous reporting of medical errors for neonatal intensive care. Pediatrics. 2004;113(6):1609-18.
(Online Source)

Thompson S, Neal S, Clark V. Clinical risk management in obstetrics: eclampsia drills. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004;13(2):127-9.
(Online Source)

Ursprung R, Gray JE, Edwards WH, Horbar JD, Nickerson J, Plsek P, Shiono PH, Suresh GK, Goldmann DA. Real time patient safety audits: improving safety every day. Qual Saf Health Care. 2005;14(4):284-9.
(Online Source)

Walker DE. Utilizing best practice methods to improve labour management in a partnership of five hospitals. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2003;25(12):1032-9.

Walsh MC. Benchmarking techniques to improve neonatal care: uses and abuses. Clin Perinatol. 2003;30(2):343-50.

Wathen N, Watson G, Caldwell S, Lewis N. Research Summary: Best Practices in the Use of Caesarean Sections. Toronto: Ontario Women’s Health Council, March 2007.
(Online Source)

Wyatt JC, Paterson-Brown S, Johanson R, Altman DG, Bradburn MJ, Fisk NM. Randomised trial of educational visits to enhance use of systematic reviews in 25 obstetric units. BMJ. 1998;317(7165):1041-6.
(Online Source)